Séminaires de recherche


Does the Depth of Trade Agreements Matter for Trade in Services

Date : Mardi | 2023-04-20 à 12h30
Lieu : Salle des thèses

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Isabelle RABAUD (LEO, Université d'Orléans)

In recent years, deep trade agreements spread around the world and go beyond tariff reductions. We aim to test whether the depth of agreements foster trade in services. To do so, we use a structural gravity type model and build new indicators of the depth of agreements based on the number of articles that are legally enforceable and that are related to trade in services. We show that, while only the deepest trade agreement raise trade in services, the quality of institution determines how deep agreements affect both the intensive (measured by the quantity of trade) and extensive margins of trade (measured by the number of service products exported and the share of the most exported service product in total services exports). This result is more pronounced for some service provisions and is robust after we control for the endogeneity of deep trade agreements. Finally, our results also hold for MENA countries that we examine as an example of an emerging region that has a comparative advantage in services but whose most of the trade agreements are rather shallow.

Non-Renewable Resource Use Sustainability and Public Debt

Date : Mardi | 2023-04-18 à 12h30
Lieu : Salle des thèses

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Francesco MAGRIS (Université de Trieste, Italie)

Co-auteur : Nicolas CLOOTENS


The sustainability of resource use and the management of public finances are both long run issues that are linked to each other through savings decisions. In order to study them conjointly, this paper introduces a public debt stabilization constraint in an overlapping generation model in which non-renewable resources constitute a necessary input in the production function and belong to agents. It shows that stabilization of public debt at high level (as share of capital) may prevent the existence of a sustainable development path, i.e. a path on which per capita consumption is not decreasing. Public debt thus appears as a threat to sustainable development. It also shows that higher public debt-to-capital ratios (and public expenditures-to-capital ones) are associated with lower growth. Two transmission channels are identified. As usual, public debt crowds out capital accumulation. In addition, public debt tends to increase resource use which reduces the rate of growth. We also analyze the dynamics and we show that the economy is characterized by saddle path stability. Finally, we show that the public debt-to-capital ratio may be calibrated to implement the social planner optimal allocation.


Innovation, information, lobby and tort law under uncertainty

Date : Mardi | 2023-04-04 à 12h30
Lieu : Salle des thèses

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Caroline ORSET (AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay)

Recent environmental policies favour the 'pollutant-payer' Principle. This principle points out the pollutant financial liability for potential incidents induced by its activities. In parallel, firms are pushed to innovate in order to remain in competition, but investing in technological innovations generates uncertainty on the future returns, as well as on the damage that such innovations could involve and on the cost to reimburse in the event that of troubles. To reduce this uncertainty, the firm has the opportunity to acquire information, for example through research activities, on its project's potential consequences on human health and the environment. Nevertheless, in their efforts to achieve and/or to maintain a marketing authorisation with the agency, firms may develop specific strategies to exploit scientific uncertainty. They may produce favourable scientific findings and/or conceal unfavourable ones. In case of accident, the firm having this type of behaviour can be legally charged. We then analyse whether civil and penal liability systems incentive the firm both to invest in research and development to reduce the uncertainty and to decrease miscommunication on the results.

Inclusive Education and Health Performance in Sub Saharan Africa 

Date : Mardi | 2023-02-28 à 12h30
Lieu : Salle des thèses

Jean-Claude KOULADOUM (University of Moundou, Chad)


The study assesses the efect of inclusive education on health performance in 48 Sub Saharan African countries from 2000 to 2020. The study adopted the Driscoll/Kraay technique to address cross-sectional dependence and the GMM strategy to address potential endogeneity. The study employed three indicators of health performance which are the total life expectancy, the female life expectancy and the male life expectancy. Three gender parity index of educational enrolments are employed: primary education, secondary and the tertiary education as indicators of inclusive education. The fndings of the study reveal that inclusive education enhances the health situation of individuals in Sub Saharan Africa. The fndings further show that the health situation of both the male and the female are improved by inclusive education. The study recommends policymakers in this region to invest more in the education and the health sector so as to enhance the health performance of the citizens.


Gender differences in digital and financial literacy of cryptoassets owners ?

Date : Mardi | 2023-03-14 à 12h30
Lieu : Salle des thèses

Daniela BALUTEL (LEO & York University)

We study gender differences in the digital and financial literacy of Bitcoin owners using microdata from the Bank of Canada's 2021 Bitcoin Omnibus Survey. We measure digital literacy using the Bitcoin knowledge score by Henry et al. (2018). The "Big Three" questions of Lusardi and Mitchell (2014) provide a measure of financial literacy. Most Bitcoin owners have both low digital and financial literacy. We find gender ifferences in digital literacy amongst Bitcoin owners, however, we do not find significant gender differences in financial literacy. Long-term Bitcoin owners tend to have high digital and financial literacy.


Market-Dependent Preferences, Positive and Negative Network Effects and Welfare

Date : Mardi | 2023-03-28 à 12h30
Lieu : Salle des thèses

Yassine BADRA (Panthéon - Assas University)

This article specifies the conditions on the utility function and on the cost function for which congestion or production overcapacity emerge in a market when information is perfect and prices are flexible. Consumers are of two types: some appreciate a large production markets, some don’t. A typology underlines the shape of utility functions and cost functions which generates an optimal production overcapacity or an optimal congestion at the pure strategy Nash equilibrium. The result is independent on the nature (positive or negative) of the consumption externalities that affect the consumers’ preferences. A welfare analysis is performed. We underline the conditions in which the social planner chooses whether to clear the market or not. Application to network economy is developed. Extensions to the following three cases are provided: 1) unsold stocks of goods with or without warehouse inventories, 2) quality of goods and 3) software markets.