Séminaires doctorants

Séminaires doctorants

Online Social Media and Populism in Europe

Date : Jeudi | 2023-12-07 à 12h30
Lieu : Salle des thèses

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Cristina STRANGO (LEO, Université d’Orléans)

This study examines how the social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Linkedin) influences the vote share of populist parties, left-wing and right-wing populist vote shares, in Europe. We use the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM)-system estimations and analyze the European Union 27 (EU-27) member states over the period 2014-2020. We distinguish between clearly oriented political communication and general communication of political parties through social media. The main results show that populist political oriented communication through Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Linkedin boosts the populist votes for both left and right-wing parties, while the general use of social media by political parties presents a contrary effect.

Electricity, welfare, time allocation and inequalities within households: Evidence from Rwanda

Date : Jeudi | 2023-11-30 à 12h30
Lieu : Salle des thèses

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Lucien AHOUANGBE (LEO, Université d’Orléans)

This study focuses on the microeconomic impact of access to electricity on welfare through the time allocation within a household. We also document the effects on intra-household time and income inequality, labor market participation, and school performance. In our analysis, we distinguish the effect by gender and age group. We develop a simple time allocation model, in which access to electricity is treated as a technology shock leading to a positive shock in the allocation of time to different activities in the household. Empirically, we use the Spatial First Difference method. This method overcomes the problem of estimating causal effects in regressions, especially when important covariates, which could influence the results, are supposed to be correlated with the variable of interest, and are unobservable, which could lead to a significant bias in the estimation of the causal effect. We use 2018 Rwanda Labor Force Survey data, especially rounds of February and August. Our results suggest that electricity has a positive impact on household welfare, and particularly when the head of household is male. At the individual level, well-being at the level of adults, mostly male heads of households, older people (above 35 years), and children, is also improved. However, for adults between 18 and 35 years of age and children between 13 and 17 years of age, the improvement in well-being is not effectively observed. Access to electricity does not explain the poor school performance of children between 14 and 17. Even if access to electricity is not a source of inequality in domestic production or leisure time, it leads to income inequalities between the head of the household and his or her spouse, in part through the inequalities in working time that it can create. Finally, it is associated with a high probability of participation in the labor market for men, but not for women. For children, on the other hand, it is negatively associated with labor force participation.

Determinants of FDI in Sub-Saharan African countries: how do investment in healthcare matter?

Date : Jeudi | 2023-11-09 à 12h30
Lieu : Salle des thèses

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Bienvenu AMAKOUE (LEO, Université d’Orléans)

This paper empirically investigates the effect of healthcare performances on the attractiveness of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We use panel data covering 38 SSA countries from 2000-2019 and perform a fixed effects (FE) estimation model. We use the Granger non-causality test of Dumitrescu and Hurlin (DH) in a heterogeneous panel to test the causal relationship between healthcare data and FDI. After controlling for other relevant determinants, the main results show that the healthcare system positively affects FDI in SSA. Further analysis shows that this effect is much stronger for countries with high levels of malaria incidence and those with high levels of HIV/AIDS prevalence. Results are robust to alternative estimation methods, alternative healthcare performance measures, and alternative specifications.

Sustainable development and the extractive industry: An assessment of the Mexican case  

Date : Jeudi | 2023-10-26 à 12h30
Lieu : Salle B.103

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José RIASCOS BENAVIDES (LEO, Université d’Orléans)

This paper investigates the impact of mining on sustainable development in Mexico. In particular, it tests whether the mining sector has an effect on consumption, inequalities, education, and environmental quality. Using household data on 2,403 municipalities over a period of 30 years considering four waves of census data (1990, 2000, 2010, 2020), we find that the mining sector has mixed effects on sustainable development. It has a limited positive effect on the income of neighboring households but it also generates negative environmental spillovers. We do not find significant effects on inequalities or education. Overall, our study provides a more nuanced understanding of the impact of mining on various aspects of sustainable development, contributing to ongoing debates on the relationship between natural resource extraction and sustainable development in emerging economies.

Addressing the effects of meteorological disasters on public debt: A focus on Middle-income economies in the Asian region

Date : Jeudi | 2023-09-28 à 12h30
Lieu : Salle des thèses

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Sarah POUEY (LEO, Université d’Orléans)

Exacerbation of extreme weather events by climate change provoked a recent surge in scientific papers examining their consequences. The present article contributes to the literature by investigating the potential effects of meteorological disasters on public debt in middle- income countries. Rising debt may limit the ability of emerging countries to cope with unanticipated crisis and prevent their ability to develop, therefore it is crucial to understand the effects of disasters on public debt and its components. Our empirical analysis includes disaster data from the CRED and gross public debt extracted from the WEO. We employ a local projection estimator on a sample of 18 middle-income countries in Asia that have experienced frequent exposure to severe weather events between 2002 and 2019. Although results do not exhibit significant effects of meteorological disasters on debt variation when we consider all the events, we find negative, significant, and robust effects of extreme meteorological events on debt variation when focusing on the 15% deadliest events. Our findings suggest that countries frequently exposed to disasters have been able to limit sovereign debt growth because of external funding.

Is growth pro poor in Côte d’Ivoire ?

Date : Mercredi | 2023-10-04 à 12h30
Lieu : Salle des thèses

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Jean Yves SADIA (LEO, Université d’Orléans)

This study is part of the in-depth research on poverty in Côte d'Ivoire. It aims to assess the pro-poor nature of growth by distinguishing three periods: 2002 - 2008, 2008 - 2015 and 2015 - 2018. The specific aim was to analyze the pro-poor growth indicators defined by Ravallion and Chen, Kakwani & Perni for these three periods, and to identify the determining factors using decomposition methods. The results obtained indicate that, at national level, growth was pro-poor only over the 2008 -2015 and 2015 - 2018 periods, with the main factor being the effect of growth in the incomes of the poor for the first period and the redistribution effect for the second period. For the period 2002 - 2008, growth was not poor. The analysis of contrasts according to area of residence revealed that the rural poor benefited from the effects of growth over the three study periods, while the urban poor were only pro-poor over the 2008 -2015 and 2015 - 2018 periods.

Privacy and Algorithmic Delegated Investment : An Experimental Approach

Date : Jeudi | 2023-04-06 à 12h30
Lieu : Salle B.103

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Mehdi LOUAFI (LEO, Université d’Orléans)

The exchange of private data associated with the growing use of algorithms and artificial intelligence has significantly grown since the beginning of the 21st century. Households are marginally involved in this sharing process and are, most often, unaware of the existence of these exchanges and their purpose. Due to the transversality of this digital transformation, they are subjected daily, either with minimal consent or voluntarily, to algorithms in order to perform various economic activities such as the delegation of their savings or retirement. Given recent developments in the wealth management industry with the introduction of Robo-advisors, this paper focuses on the determinants of individuals’ sensitivity to the management of private data used to feed algorithms or artificial intelligence in the context of investment delegation decisions. We attempt to propose an experimental protocol that measures this said sensitivity by exposing individuals to data leaks in varying investment tasks. The presentation will consist of a live demonstration of the experiment.