Séminaires doctorants

Séminaires doctorants

The Effects of Climate Change on Public Investment Efficiency in Resource-rich Countries : Evidence from Stochastic Frontier Analysis

Date : Mercredi | 2022-10-27 à 12h30
Lieu : Salle des thèses

Developing countries suffer disproportionately from the negative impact of climate change and environmental degradation on economic development in terms of financial cost and loss of potential revenue. In this paper, we examine the effects of climate change on public investment efficiency in 34 developing countries with a particular focus on resource-rich countries over the period 2000 to 2013. Using the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to obtain the efficiency scores, we find that, on average, developing countries could increase the capital stock by 29% without changing their public investment expenditures. In particular, those in resource-rich countries could increase it by 26% without changing their expenditure. Then, in the second step, we use the fractional regression model (FRM) to capture the effect of climate change on the investment efficiency scores obtained in the first step. Our results show that climate change negatively affects the public investment efficiency. Nevertheless, when the climate change index is disaggregated to run the regressions, we find that only rainfall has a negative effect while a 1°C increase of temperature leads to an improvement of public investment efficiency of 16.32% as percent of GDP in resource-rich countries. These results are also statistically and economically robust to various controls and specifications. The main findings of this paper suggest that policies to combat climate change in general and heavy rainfall shocks in particular should include strong provisions for financing more resilient public investment adapting to climatic conditions and updating public infrastructures aimed at mitigating the negative environmental impact for developing countries, especially those rich in natural resources.

Revue systématique de la littérature sur les effets cardio métaboliques du bruit des transports (période 2014-2021)

Mercredi | 2022-04-27
Salle des thèses – 12h

Julie LEDUC

Cette présentation détaillera les résultats d’une revue systématique de la littérature sur les effets cardio métaboliques du bruit des transports (période 2014-2021). Nous actualisons ainsi les travaux ayant contribué à la production des lignes directrices sur le bruit dans l’environnement par l’OMS en 2018. Les maladies cardio métaboliques, tels les troubles cardiaques, le diabète ou l’hypertension sont des pathologies à large prévalence populationnelle. Elles entraînent des coûts sociaux importants en raison des soins de longue durée qu’elles engendrent. La moitié des Européens étant exposée à des niveaux de bruit considérés néfastes pour la santé, la quantification de l’accroissement du risque cardio métabolique lié à cette pollution est un enjeu de santé publique. Cette revue de littérature constitue la base d’une méta-analyse réalisée dans le cadre thèse portant sur l’évaluation du coût social sanitaire de la pollution sonore des transports en France.La revue des évidences scientifiques disponibles permettra aux décideurs publics d’identifier et de pondérer les niveaux d’émissions pour lesquelles la collectivité subit un préjudice supérieur au coût engendré par des mesures de prévention, de protection ou de réduction du bruit dans l’environnement.

How do epidemics affect trade costs? Evidence from Ebola in West Africa

Mercredi | 2022-03-10
Salle des thèses – 12h30

Yrkamba Bienvenu AMAKOUE – Isabelle RABAUD

The increased occurrence of natural disaster and uncertainty linked to epidemics has generated disruption of trade. Our work is included in this field of study. In this paper, we investigate, more precisely, the effect of trade restrictions issued against Ebola-infected countries by their trading partners over the period 2014-2016. We measured the effect of these restrictions on trade between Ebola-infected countries and their trading partners. We used monthly panel data over the period January 2011 to December 2018 to perform our estimations based on the gravity model of international trade. Our results showed that the restrictions implemented against Ebola-infected countries by some of their trading partners during the period of the epidemic led to an average decline in exports from the infected countries by around 50%. The detailed results show a much stronger negative effect of total bans on trade than partial bans. This effect of total bans is magnified for export of fresh products (72%) compared to durable products (67%). Regarding imports from trading partners, the results show no negative effect of the restrictions. Our results are robust to PPML estimation.

FDI and Environmental Convergence: Home country influence

Mercredi | 2022-03-03
B103 – 12h00

This study analyzes the existence and determinants of environmental convergence/divergence. We take a bilateral approach where one or more investor partners could use their influence to impact the environmental performance of their investment host country, and thus generate environmental convergence or divergence between home and host country. Based on a sample of 128 countries with bilateral data between 2000 and 2012, we show the existence of the environmental convergence/divergence phenomenon. Our results suggest that FDI does not directly impact environmental convergence/divergence, except for those from the most important investor partner countries. And, under certain conditions, FDI can be associated with either environmental convergence or divergence. These conditions, which are more related to the host country than to the country of origin, are: the level of economic, institutional, and financial development, the degree of openness, natural resources, the level of human capital, and the level of corruption. The factors that directly influence convergence/divergence are: the level of economic development, industrial development, energy use, spatial, geographic, cultural, and historical proximity, corruption, human capital, and natural resources. We find threshold effects between the environmental gaps between partners and the level of economic development (U-shaped relationship), industrial development (inverted U-shaped relationship), and urbanization. The phenomenon of environmental divergence (convergence) – bilateral or towards the mean – between two partners is associated with low (high) levels of economic development of both partners. On the other hand, the phenomenon of environmental convergence (divergence) between two partners is associated with low (high) levels of industrial development of both partners. The magnitude and effect of different factors may vary depending on the type of partnership considered (North-North, North-South, South-North, and South-South).